Vol 13, No. 1 Under Preparation Jan-Mar 2018
Relations: Present Reality & Future Directions"
The Canada-India relationship has indeed taken a positive turn since
Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Canada in 2015. It was the first by
an Indian Prime Minister in about four decades.
While India and Canada are members of the Commonwealth of Nations,
robust democracies, multicultural societies and have had very close
cooperative ties, a sort of bitterness had entered the relationship in the
aftermath of India’s nuclear test in 1974. Canada played a prominent role
in promoting nuclear export control rules against India. A Working
relationship continued but the mistrust level was high - until recently..
However, today the two countries have embarked upon a new path of bilateral
cooperation in the civil nuclear sector.
The just concluded visit of Canadian Prime Minister to India was
expected to further boost bilateral relationship.
During Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Canada in April 2015,
both sides agreed to elevate their bilateral relations to a strategic
partnership. However, the strategic content remains wafer thin. The ties
essentially rest on 3Es - economy, energy and education.
The two must now take a long-term view. What should each side do?
RAJIV BHATIA: Ambassador Rajiv Bhatia is a former Consul General of
India at Toronto (Canada), a former Ambassador of India to Myanmar and to
Mexico, former High Commissioner of India to South Africa and to Kenya.
VISHNU PRAKASH: A former Ambassador of India to Republic of
Korea, a former spokesperson, he was till recently High Commissioner of India to Canada
PREM BUDHWAR: A former
High Commissioner of India to Canada
SHASHI U. TRIPATHI: A former
High Commissioner of India to Canada and a former Secretary,
Ministry of External affairs, she was eralier High Commissioner to Zimbabwe
and Consul General of India in New York.
ABDUL NAFEY: Professor of Canadian and Latin American
Studies, JNU, New Delhi.
APARAJITA KASHYAP: Assistant Professor of Canadian and Latin
American Studies, JNU, New Delhi
SITAKANTA MISHRA: Assistant Professor, Pandit Deendayal Petroleum
University, Gandhi Nagar.
PINAK R CHAKRAVARTY: A former secretary in the Ministry of External
Affairs, a former High Commissioner to Bangladesh and a former Ambassador
to Thailand. He is currently a Distinguished Fellow at the Delhi-based
Observer Research Foundation.
Global Priorities and the Role Of
Act East Policy
There is no appetite for any large scale conflict
in the current international order. There will be competition and
cooperation. World leaders meet frequently in a variety of global fora and
these frequent interactions help to defuse tensions. A China-centric
international order cannot be stable.
China has no history of being a global hegemon. China’s "Middle
Kingdom” mentality was regional, and limited to China’s periphery even in
sub-regions which have been absorbed in Chinese territory. Moreover,
China’s authoritarian state structure which precludes democratic decision
making and transparency is ill suited for a global role. China has no
history of creating and protecting an international order based on
maintaining public goods.
Thus, the current phase in the international order
will require India to navigate by hedging, band-wagoning, and forming
coalitions with like-minded powers to ensure that the international order
moves towards a multipolar configuration. One can call this approach
“Flexible Multipolarity”. Avoidance of conflict will certainly be a main
pillar of this policy for India. This will require building deterrence,
both conventional and non-conventional; the judicious management of our
periphery; going full speed ahead on domestic reforms, economic growth, job
creation, spreading skills; as well as maintaining a stable social order.
It is from domestic strength that we can build the sinews of our foreign
M. MATHESWARAN: Air Marshall M. Matheshwaran (Retd) is a Former Deputy Chief of the Integrated
Nuclear Stability in Asia and South Asia: Dynamics
of Fragile Stability
technology and development have moved at significant pace in Asia over the
last year and a half. Missile and weapon tests over the last year have brought
the non-proliferation lobby to actively raise the alarm on the spectre of a
nuclear arms race unfolding in South Asia. The year of 2017 seems to have
got the world's attention on the state of a fragile stability in South Asia
However, while the
danger of a nuclear arms race in South Asia must not be ignored, it is
important to remember that the South Asian nuclear scenario is far more
complex. Very often the focus tends to be on India-Pakistan
conflict/relations, which is deeply flawed. Nuclear deterrence stability in
South Asia depends on the stability of complex triangular nuclear
deterrence dynamics between India, China, and Pakistan. China has, until
now, played a very successful strategic game of deception wherein it
projects an image of a power that strongly articulates international
non-proliferation norms while commenting on India's missile tests or on
North Korea's missile and nuclear antics.
It is quite evident
that China's extended deterrence for both Pakistan and North Korea is a
critical component of its Asian nuclear strategy. Early in 2017, Pakistan
tested its MIRV (multiple independently targeted reentry vehicles) on a new
land-based missile. This was preceded by the first successful test of its
450 km range submarine launched cruise missile (SLCM). Both these
capabilities provide significant second and third strike capability to
Pakistan. But underlying these demonstrations is China's role in providing
active technological support to Pakistan's nuclear capability.
Pakistan has unveiled
its new strategy called "full spectrum deterrence", which
accentuates its first use policy with the use of tactical nuclear weapons
(TNW), backed by its second and third strike capability. India's
development of BMD is cited as the trigger for Pakistan's focus on MIRV and
SLCM. In reality, however, it is China's extended deterrence strategy that
is in play, where it seeks keep India bottled up with Pakistan on nuclear
A similar strategy is
evident in its use of North Korea against Japan and the USA.
India's recent Agni-V
test may be the beginning of an overt India-China nuclear deterrent
BHASWATI MUKHERJEE: Ambassador Bhaswati Mukherjee,
is a former Permanent Representative of India to UNESCO, Paris and former
Ambassador of India to the Netherlands.
Rajendra K Jain (Ed), India, Europe and Pakistan (New Delhi, 2017, K W Publishers), Pages: 318,
SIDDIQUI: Dr. Fazzur R. Siddiqui ia a Research Fellow, Indian Council of World
Affairs, New Delhi
P. R. Kumaraswamy, Squaring the Circle: Mahatma Gandhi and the Jewish National
Home (New Delhi, Knowledge World,
2017), Pages: 234, Price: Rs. 920.00
RAJAGOPALAN: Prof. Rajesh Rajagopalan is
Professor in International Politics, School of International Studies,
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
Gurmeet Kanwal, Sharpening
the Arsenal: India's Evolving Nuclear Deterrence Policy, (Noida, India, Harper Collins), Pages: 272,
Price: Rs. 599.00
GIRIJESH PANT: Prof. Girijesh Pant is a former Dean,School of International
Studies. JNU; Former Vice Chancellor, Doon University & GGD University
Gulshan Dietl, India and the Global Game of Gas Pipeline, (New York and London, Routledge,
2017), Price: Rs 695.00, Pages: 213
Published in Volume 12, 2017
Vol 13, No. 2 Under Planning Apr - Jun 2018
"India in the
Emerging Global Order:
Indian Foreign Affairs Journal is
in the process of inviting nine to ten experts in the field, to comment on
the above, and offer their views. This Debate Concept Note and their views
will be published as the 'Debate'.
expressed by the authors are their own, and do not reflect the views of the
Indian Foreign Affairs Journal, or that of the Association of Indian
SURESH KUMAR GOEL: Ambassador S. K. Goel is a former Amabassador of India
to Laos and a former Director General of ICCR, New Delhi.
United Nations Council Reforms - Myth or
YOGENDRA KUMAR: Ambassador Yogendra Kumar is a former Ambassador of
India to the Philippines. He was, earlier on the Faculty of the National
Defence College, New Delhi.
MILAN series of Naval Exercises - 2018 (Subject
- yet to be titled)
B. S. PRAKASH: Amabassador B. S. Prakash is a former Ambassador of India
to Brazil and to Uganda and a former Consul General of India at San
Alyssa Ayres, Our Time Has Come:
How India is Making Its Place in the World, (OUP USA, Mar 2018), Pages: 360, Price: 695.00
ERIC GONSALVES: Ambassador Eric Gonsalves is a
Former Secretary, Ministry of External Affairs and a Former Ambassador to
Japan and to Belgium
Sen, India, China, and the World: A Connected History,
(Maryland, United States, 2017, Rowman & Littlefield), ), Pages: 560
(HC), Price: Rs. 2,985.00